Thursday, October 3, 2019
Exploitation of Teenagers Essay Example for Free
Exploitation of Teenagers Essay Our Indian society is far better than the rest of the universe from the point of view of culture as well as conventions and ways of living but on the other side, if we glance into our society, it has many social and political and economical evils such as bride burning, dowry system and dowry death, corruption in educational system, problem of illiteracy in India, domestic violence, communalism, injustice, crime against children, unemployment in India, suppression of human rights, poverty. Some of the problems have been cast off from its core by the social propaganda and social awareness and education and there are still such unanswerable problems which must be removed from the society only through the individual consciousness. Literature is an echo or reflection of the society and that is why authors have a direct association with the society and its values. They have always been successful in the vivid portrayal of the colourful and well cultured society. At the same time they never hesitate to show a dirty and filthy image of the same society. One of the major themes in all genres of literature is social issues or problems. If we observe the present Indian society, the major problem that has taken place and has been most prevalent in the Indian society as well in the whole globe is the problems of teenagers. Childhood is one of the greatest and valuable periods in human life. It is that phase of life where a child is free from all the tensions, fun-loving, to play and learns new things, and is the most innocent of all the family members. This age of a child or teenager is of enjoying the naughtiness and also the time of learning and making career. If the teenagers work taking the whole familyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility instead of learning what will be the future of the nation? The issues relating to the exploitation of teenagers should be high on any Governments agenda. Children should be on the first call on agenda of human resource development not only because young children or teenagers are the most helpless but because this age is the institution of lifelong learning and human development is totally dependent on these crucial early years. The constitution of any teenagerÃ¢â¬â¢s social, emotional, mental background is depended on the primary stage of childhood. Children or teenagers are considered as the future of any nation and as the power and muscle of the nation lies in a healthy, protected, educated and well developed child population. Child abuse is covered in secrecy and there is a great conspiracy of silence among all the administrative power around the entire subject. Existing socio- economic conditions also render some children vulnerable and more at risk to abuse, exploitation and neglect. All the major or minor problems have their root causes from which it stems out. The Concept of Exploitation The awareness of this new phenomenon first emerged several years ago in Latin America, and more particularly in Asia. But the complete understanding of the term exploitation came into existence after many decades of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s slumber in the form of Karl Marx, the first revolutionary against capitalism and industrialism which are the basic factors of exploitation. He was a revolutionary by nature. He strongly believes: The worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and range. The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he creates. With the increasing value of the world of things proceeds in direct proportion to the devaluation of the world of men (Kreis 1). Thus Marx was against industrialism and capitalism that victimize the people through the medium of various instruments yielding exploitations. Marx argued that the change in socio-economic conditions occurred through organized revolutionary action. He argued that capitalism would end through the organized actions of an international working class, he did not believe in communism to be established; he used abide the people to accept reality-an ideal to which we will have to adjust itself. He believes that there are only two communities 1.Abuser and 2. Abused people. Then Came Lenin Vladimir, a Russian Marxist revolutionary and then Stalin came with his own revolutionary thoughts. In India, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar, came into the form of semi-God figure, worshipped by the down-trodden people and untouchables of India. He enriched the lives of exploiting caste by awareness, revolution and by granted them the basic human rights. Gandhiji also completely advocated him his actions to eliminate the wrongs done towards low-caste and exploited people. Exploitation has a strong relationship with the society as in the society there are many people who are being exploited or manipulated for the benefits of others. The term exploitation of teenagers basically has two meanings. One is to make use of someone for specific purpose whose age is more than twelve and less than twenty, and the second one is to manipulate someone or something in an unjust or cruel manner. In the simplest of words, the term exploitation refers to using another personÃ¢â¬â¢s labour without offering adequate rewards including all kinds of abuses as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, psychological and mental. Exploitation of Teenagers as Reflected in Mulk Raj AnandÃ¢â¬â¢s Untouchable and Coolie Dr. Mulk Raj AnandÃ¢â¬â¢s two Novels Untouchable and Coolie are the real representation of the condition of our society i.e. the phenomenon of exploitation of teenagers. Mulk Raj Anand was a man of realism and the characters of his Novels are more real and universal rather than subjective i.e. individual. Most of his writings are directly or indirectly investigating deeply the social process. To Anand literature is an expression of society and the large majority of questions raised by him are social questions: question of tradition and convention, norms and genres, symbols and myth. Untouchable and Coolie are not only literary pieces became well known which talk about the behavioral pattern of untouchablity and the people deprived of socially, culturally, religiously and but because of several exploitations of people including innocent children of that period. Undoubtedly Untouchable is AnandÃ¢â¬â¢s modern work which is the image of his societyÃ¢â¬â¢s trodden and exploited class. This book is considered to be an autobiographical note which came out as a form of his experiences. When Anand was a child, his father was employed as a Subedar in the Indian Army. During those days Anand mixed with the children of leather-workers, washer men and sweepers and came across their real daily life and its realities. This association and attachment continued till the days of his youth. Hence this Novel is the authentic document of his lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s incidents. Untouchable is the story of the depravation of outcaste people and at the same time of the exploitation of teenagers. It basically deals with the different teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ problems like Bakha, sister Sohini, his brother Rakha and some other his outcastes friends like Chota and Ramcharan we come across during their a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Coolie is also a masterpiece depicting the reality of life. The title is very apt, suitable and reasonable as the story of the Novel revolves round a boy named Munoo, a son of a porter who comes from his village to come out his poverty and works at various places. The peak of darkness of exploitation is expertly described by the author. The Novel also shows the highest level of inhumanity when poor Munoo works at socially, economically, and politically higher classes of Indian society. The Novel shows his adventures and journey of exploitation from servant, factory worker, rickshaw driver to a child labourer. There is a large difference between social evil and social problem. A definition of a social problem may be suggestive of state of affairs which are not favorable in society and people searching for the practical cure. On the contrary social evil indicates more complex, threatening and indescribable, may an implication of more realism, a degree of skepticism and gloom whether any remedy can be found. In everyday speech, both the terms are often used rhetorically and in substitution. There are many subjective and objective elements of social problems. Social problem includes many social forms and all share two important elements: an objective social condition and a subjective social condition. The objective element of a social problem refers to the existence of a social condition. Generally we learn about social condition through our own life experience, through the media and education. The subjective element of a social problem refers to a personal belief and view that a particular social situation is harmful to the society or to a segment of society, it should and can be changed. We can take an example for illustration. We know that poverty, racism, violence, pollution, crime. They are not considered to be social problems they diminish the quality of human life. Combination of these subjective and objective elements led us to certain efforts. Every individual needs to take steps in order to make the nation a better place to live in. Mulk Raj Anand is considered to be God or Messiah in backward castes and exploited class just because of his brilliant works which describe down-trodden and poor Indias social, political, and cultural conditions. The Novels Untouchable and Coolie, which communicate the abuses of an exploited class- an untouchable boy in Untouchable and a waif, Munoo in Coolie. Untouchable and Coolie are the only Novels in which Anand has presented the realistic picture especially problems and exploitations of teenagers of the early decades of 20th century in India to reveal the social background with the unique observation of social reformer. Anand has not presented the teenage character in particularly but in a general way. The writer has not only painted his works with the idea of keeping his literary pieces mirror up to the Indian society but also made it mandatory to think about the masses, about the sufferers and abused people and provided ideal solutions. Untouchable and Coolie are legendary stories of two teenagers Bakha and Munoo, appear among the people of the modern society to tell their problems, abuses and exploitations they endured. Bakha and Munoo are the symbolic representatives of the whole teenage class of the present day who give a voice to the predicament of the mute humanity in odd circumstances. Anand has not presented the adolescent characters in particularly but in a general way. Like G.B.Shaw, Mulk Raj Anand is considered to be a great thinker and reformer of the society. He succeeded in doing so by disturbing his readers putting the puzzle-like problems before the society like Shaw and never put a solution of a particular problem. No writer before Charles had handled the English people, similarly no Indo-English writer before Annad has devoted a strong sympathy to the poor, exploited class and neglected part of the society. The underdog protagonists Bakha and Munoo in both the Novels seem to sail in the same boat as far as personal and subjective suffering and exploitation is concerned. There is a parallel central theme in Untouchable and Coolie Ã¢â¬â social exploitation, exploitation of the poor and the under-privileged class by the forces of capitalism, industrialism and colonialism. In AnandÃ¢â¬â¢s Coolie, Munoo is denied his fundamental rights to life and happiness and is exploited and made to suffer, till he dies of consumption. The Novelist makes it quite clear that Munoo is not the only victim of such exploitation. He represents millions of those for whom such exploitation is the lot of everyday life. Both these Novels have been written with a purpose. These Novels are powerful condemnation of modern capitalistic Indian society and feudal system with the shameless and tragic exploitation of the underdog and poor which is also ready to sacrifice the poor teenagers and children who face the difficulties without protest. Both the protagonists desire to live but the society does not allow them to live. They die of exploitation, poverty and hunger. Thus, only a single problem that has attracted the attention of most of the writers, philosophers and administrators is the only exploitation of teenagers which can be possible to eradicate of this planet only through application of more possible improvements that can be beneficial for the teenagers. One of the helpful components is education which can help in relieving this major evil in the society. In the first Novel Untouchable we can rightly observe that Bakha became a victim of the society who has high aspirations of life which have been suppressed not only the customs and traditions but also by the dirty politics and Government. Bakha is seen, saved by the man emerged out in the end of the Novel like a real God in the form of Gandhi who has started the remedial works of the society not by the mere talks and philosophies but by the real implementation of the ideas he has. However in the real life who will be a benefactor person of these downtrodden and exploited people. This is a total responsibility of the Government and administrative people who are observing and enjoying the joyful moments just like an audience of a circus that need a complete meditation on this particular subject to take reforming steps in relation to this harsh reality. In the second Novel Coolie we can notice the same anguish scenario but with a different view. Munoo, hero of the Novel reveals real social conditions but not through a single day of his life but through the full-fledge life that might be a great trick of the writer not only to develop the discourse of the character of poor Munoo, but the silence and mum that is still prevalent and ever last among the heartless and unkind society as well as the administrative people even after the death of an innocent boy Munoo. This is not a single teenage boy who lives a hell-like life, is sacrificed on the altar of social treatment and GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s indifference towards this burning social dilemma but there are many teenagers sacrifice themselves in the same manner which can create a shocking result which is merely unimaginative for the whole globe. Poverty Poverty is considered to be the first and foremost root cause of being exploitation of the teenagers. Poverty is one of the major issues, attracting the attention of sociologists and economists. It is such a situation in which a person fails to maintain a living standard adequate for a comfortable lifestyle. Poverty plays a significant role in the formation of public policy and has a centre of attraction to the National Policy Agenda forever five decades. Though India boasts of a high economic growth; it is shameful that there is still large scale of poverty in India. Poverty in India can be defined as a situation when a certain section of people are unable to fulfill their basic needs. India has the worlds largest number of poor people living in a single country. Out of its total population of more than 1 billion, 350 to 400 million people are living below the poverty line. Nearly 75% of the poor people are in rural areas, most of them are daily wagers, landless labourers and self employed house holders. The same scenario of anguish as presented in the Novel can be seen in the present society: The outcastesÃ¢â¬â¢ colony was a group of mud-walled houses that clustered together in two rowsÃ¢â¬ ¦.there lived the scavengers, the leather-workers, the washer men, the barbers, the water- carriers, the grass-cutters and other outcastes from Hindu society. A brook ran near the lane, once with crystal- clear water, now soiled by the dirt and filth of the public latrines situated about it, the ordour of the hides and skins of dead carcasses left to dry on its banks, the dung of donkeys, sheep, horses, cows and buffaloes heaped up to be made into fuel cakes, and the biting, choking, pungent fumes that oozed from its sides (Anand 1). Social division This great affecting major problem of the society came into existence when the Hindu society has been divided. That is why it is the main root or origin of this problem. Hindu society has traditionally been categorized into four classes, called Varnas the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, and the Shudras. The first belonging to this Varna is called Brahmanas. Their function is to learn and to make share of the learning and to preserve the eternal knowledge of the race. The Brahmins are devoted to their works of teaching and preaching. Kshatriya is the one who belongs to Kshatra varna. This is the forms the military defense group, the martial class and administration of the society. They contain administrative and wielding political power and ruled the states. The Vaishyas are divided into the category of farming and business and that is the reason why they were pre-occupied with the works of selling goods to the others. Vaisya is the creative class of the society, and their primary occupations are trading and business and they are called merchants. Shudra is the lowest in the traditional four-section division in the Hindu caste system. The Shudras have classically lived lives of service. Slaves were often classified as Shudras, as were leatherworkers, blacksmiths, maids, cooks, and so forth. They have typically not been accorded the same rights as higher castes, forced to use different temples and public facilities. Thus the Gita declares: Ã¢â¬Å"The work of the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras is divided according to qualities born of their own inner natureÃ¢â¬ (Wikipedia 1). Some relieving solutions Common education system Every child and citizen of India is eligible to get equal type of education. As we know parallel education system created by upper class and the rich people but limited to these classes only. We can say that this system is totally based on class and caste. Kothari Commission (1964-66) has presented the common school education system both for the poor and rich people. Almost all political leaders, upper class administrators support this system. But the little children and teenagers are sent to the private schools and English medium schools that charge high fees which are not affordable for the poor, down trodden and exploited class. It is very noticeable that neither State Government nor the Central Government has succeeded to cease these schools and will not dare for the same in the future also. Although the Government has opened a number of schools for the underprivileged and exploited class, how many benefits they got still now? The Government runs schools for the poor people like Bakha and Munoo but practically failed to make the major part of the deprived people educated. The reason also may be a lack of awareness among the down trodden people or a lack of Government policy. In one of the incidents of the novel Untouchable, we can observe that Bakha, at the British Barracks, shows his extreme wish of being educated to his uncle and he also weeps for it. His father tells him that schools and education institutions are made for the sahibs only not for the downtrodden and exploited class. In this way, we can rightly observe the lack of common education system at the time of British still continues today also. The same education discrimination is prevalent in the recent age. It is very clear that the upper class and rich people who are the holders of high degrees and well educated come in contact with the poor and exploited class and impose them to be abused. Because they are all illiterate and do not have degrees for getting good jobs just like the high class people which pathetic circumstances after all direct them to a single path of leading life and that is exploitation alone. The problem of social, economical and educational inequality can be solved only when the Government takes over the management of all the non-governmental schools by making necessary laws in this connection. In the near future if it is not done, the problem of inequality in all the grounds will remain same as present time. There is an intimate kinship between education and life. Education is the one tool that can drive one from the world of several exploitations and abuses to the world of equality. * Incentives to needy families to send their children to school regularly till they reach the age of 17 or 18. * Pre-metric and post-metric scholarship scheme for children of families employed in occupations such as scavenging. All children of such families, regardless of incomes, will be covered by the scheme. * Provision of remedial courses to improve their study and prospect for further education. * The recruitment of teachers from the low-castes who are being the target of exploitations. * Increasing of residential schools, including ashram schools should be established in a large numbers so that the parents can take care of their children very well. * The curriculum of education should be designed by keeping an eye on both rich and poor classes and as a device to encourage children and teenagers to get educated. * To provide them an education loan of a small amount without a single penny interest which provides in muster to make their children educated and employed. * The state should not discriminate against any citizen on the basis of religion, caste, race, sex by keeping in mind traditions and customs at school or colleges or any institution of learning. * Primary and secondary should provide education irrespective of cast and creed. Anti-poverty programmes The most important component of eliminating of the exploitation of teenagers is the socio-economic and anti-poverty programmes meant for the families socially and economically handicapped ready to sacrifice their children only for monetary significance. Gujarat is one of the most growing states of India now-a-days. Though the state is developing in all the directions, it is facing much more problems simultaneously; one of them is poverty. The Chief Minister of this state launched state-wide Abhiyan of Garib Kalyan Mela from Amreli which is the first major step taken in the whole India to reduce poverty. It has been announced of organizing around 50 Garib Kalyan Mela across the State, providing economic assistance to the poor and marginalized people. One of its essential objectives of this programme is to provide financial help which is the source of all the harms of the exploited and deprived people. Nearly forty thousand people, including slum dwellers and citizens Below Poverty Line (BPL) of Visnagar under this programme attained a full economical assistance at the Garib Kalyan Melo. However, the elimination or eradication of the poverty in India has not reached to a definite estimated level because of indifference of Central Government of India towards the reality of poverty. Such programmes related to poverty must be organized nationally to bend each state in these activities. Central Government of India totally failed to be conscious of the severe conditions of poverty. Present central Government need to be sensitized the administration so that such programmmes can get a start to lead actives and inspiration which have already started in a single state or two. In short, the schemes or programmes for reducing poverty as considered the first and primary source exploitation should be introduced and updated time to time by the central Government. On one side children and teenagers are considered to be the power and strength of the near future. On the other side, this social evil of exploitation is increasing day by day and taking its magnitude form. The day will come when half population of the children and teenagers will be exploited in India and these situations will create a great obstacle in the development of the nation. Therefore everyone should admit this harsh reality which cannot be cast off from its root unless and until the government is awake and show seriousness. References Anand, Mulk. Untouchable. Pune: Mehta Publication, 2003. Print. Anand, Mulk. Coolie. Noida: N.p. Penguin Books India, 1993. Print. Kreis, Steven. Ã¢â¬Å"Lecture on Modern European Intellectual History Karl Marx 1818-188.Ã¢â¬ The History Guide. N.p. 30 Jan. 2008. Web. 11 Nov.2010. Ã¢â¬Å"Varna (Hinduism).Ã¢â¬ Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. N.p. n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2010.